The American Academy of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery endorses the intraoperative use of computer-aided surgery in appropriately select cases to assist the surgeon in clarifying complex anatomy during sinus and skull base surgery. There is sufficient expert consensus opinion and literature evidence base to support this position. This technology is used at the discretion of the operating surgeon and is not experimental or investigational. Furthermore, the American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery is of the opinion that it is impossible to corroborate this with Level 1 evidence. These appropriate, specialty specific, and surgically indicated procedural services should be reimbursed whether used by neurosurgeons or other qualified physicians regardless of the specialty. Examples of indications in which use of computer-aided surgery may be deemed appropriate include:
Related terminology: Image guided sinus surgery, computer-assisted sinus surgery, surgical navigation, computer-guided imaging systems.
Anon JB, Lipman SP, Oppenheim D, et al.“Computer assisted endoscopic sinus surgery,” Laryngoscope, 1994, 104:901-905
Anon JB, Rontal R., Zinreich SJ, “Computer assisted endoscopic sinus surgery-current experience and future developments,”Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, 1995; 6:163-170
Fried MP, Kleefield J., Gopal H, et al.“Image-guided endoscopic surgery:results of accuracy and performance in a multicenter clinical study using an electromagnetic tracking system,” Laryngoscope, 1997; 107:594-601
Metson R, Gliklich RE, Coseneza MJ.“A comparison of image guided systems for sinus surgery,” Laryngoscope, 1998; 108:1164-1170.
Metson R, Coszena MJ, Gliklich RE, Montgomery WW, “The role of image guided systems for head and neck surgery,”Archives of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, 1999, 125:1100-1104.
Metson R, Coszena MJ, Cunningham MJ, Randolph GW, “Physician Experience with an optical image guided system for sinus surgery,”Laryngoscope 2000;110:972-976.
Neumann AM, Pasquale-Niebles K, Bhuta T., Sillers MJ, “Image-guided transnasal endoscopic surgery of the paranasal sinuses and anterior skull base,”American Journal of Rhinology 1999; 13:449-454.
Important Disclaimer NoticePosition statements are approved by the American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Inc. or Foundation (AAO-HNS/F) Boards of Directors and are typically generated from AAO-HNS/F committees. Once approved by the Academy or Foundation Board of Directors, they become official position statements and are added to the existing position statement library. In no sense do they represent a standard of care. The applicability of position statements, as guidance for a procedure, must be determined by the responsible physician in light of all the circumstances presented by the individual patient. Adherence to these clinical position statements will not ensure successful treatment in every situation. As with all AAO-HNS/F guidance, this position statement should not be deemed inclusive of all proper treatment decisions or methods of care, nor exclusive of other treatment decisions or methods of care reasonably directed to obtaining the same results.
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